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Zdeněk Vybíral napisał:

Jestem z zawodu historykiem i amatorem szachów (ELO około 2250). Przez wiele lat wykładałem na kilku czeskich uniwersytetach. Teraz pracuję w Muzeum Husyckim w Táborze.

Podczas mojej pracy przed laty w ZSRR spotkałem czeskie ślady Wiktora Korcznoja. To zmobilizowało mnie do napisania biografii o nim.

Ten temat wydaje mi się bardzo interesujący i obecnie jestem w trakcie zbierania materiałów o znakomitym arcymistrzu. Dlatego chciałbym wykorzystać w mojej publikacji informację zawartą w wpisie: link.

Załączam tekst z mojej planowanej książki (moja uwaga: opublikujemy to w częściach).

Life and Remarkable Acts of Viktor Korchnoi

  1. Winter

Blockade

Three months after Viktor’s tenth birthday, Germans invaded the Soviet Union. The day of invasion, 22nd June 1941, will probably always be considered one of the most difficult moments in modern Russian history. We cannot say that Soviet citizens did not expect the war.  On the contrary, the government propaganda kept preparing Soviet people for the war intensely. The war between Hitler and the rest of democratic Europe had raged for two years and it kept spreading over to more and more countries. The Soviet Union planned to join the fights only after both the parties would become exhausted in the bloody bath. The communist regime claimed that they intended to liberate the continent from fascism. However, Stalin in fact planned to execute the great Bolshevik dream – to spread the revolution over the Russian border and introduce the communist regime also in the rest of Europe. That would, at the same time, fulfill Stalin´s dream about the world rule.

Numerous Leningrad citizens had experienced three war conflicts at that time – the First World War which started in 1914, the Russian civil war in 1918-192, when Bolsheviks seized the former tsarist imperium and subsequently regained the control in fights against domestic and foreign enemies. However, they had to give up the Baltics and Finland. And it was Finland at which the Soviet Union directed its aggression in a short war that lasted from the end of November 1939 till the beginning of March 1940. The latter two war conflicts directly affected citizens of Petr’s town.

In October 1919 troops of the White Army led by General Nikolaj Nikolajevitsch Judenitsch set off against the bastion of the Bolshevik revolution. During the First World War Judenitsch successfully fought against Turks at the Caucasian battlefront where he kept winning individual battles in spite of the lack of means. During summer 1919, being supported by Britons and Americans, he gathered a small, but well trained troop with which he intended to conquer Petrograd. The plan failed.  Leon Trotsky, the chief commander of the Red Army, managed to bring reinforcement from Moscow, and to force Judenitsch  to wage  exhausting fights in the style of  trench warfare. That was exactly the kind of war that Judenitsch’s troops were not good at. Vainly did Judenitsch’s former colleague from the tsarist army, the Finnish Marshal Carl Mannerheim, offer help to Judenitsch. In spite of the fact that both the men were friends, Judenitsch refused to acknowledge that Finland was an independent country, by which acknowledgement Finns conditioned their offer to help.

As we learned from memoirs of Zena Azbel-Korchnoi the destiny of the Korchnoi family was adversely influenced by another white commander, General Anton Ivanovitsch Denikin,. The organizer and commander of the so called Army of Volunteers was for sure the most dangerous enemy of Bolsheviks. From his base in South Russia he attempted to attack Moscow, the heart of the Bolshevik government. However, Lenin’s management organized a daring diplomatic operation – they sent anarchist Ukrainian troops of Nestor Machna, a so called Black Army, against Denikin. Machno did not understand that Bolsheviks were an arch-enemy and a real threat for his country. Volunteer troops got involved in bloody fights in Ukraine during which both the parties unfortunately committed also frequent violent acts against civilian citizens. During one of such acts a bayonet of a Denikin’s soldier killed Viktor’s grandmother Cita Azbel.

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